Category Archives: Religion

Natural Healing — Peyote

Peyote / Lophophora williamsii

Peyote (mescal button) is best known for its hallucinogenic properties. This small, spineless cactus has a large quantity of mescaline which can cause euphoria, hallucinations, depersonalization, and psychoses. It is not physically addictive and does not produce life-threatening symptoms unless there are preexisting conditions that its ingesting aggravates. It does contain hordenine which increases blood pressure. The hallucinogenic tea made from peyote is bitter and causes nausea. 

It has traditionally only been ingested as part of religious ceremonies and therefore hasn’t developed into a recreational drug in Mexico. Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is known as hikuri in Huichol, the language indigenous people in the state of Nayarit. Other names for the Lophophora williamsii include kamaba by the Tepehuán in Durango. The Tarahumara in Chihuahua use the term honanamé. The Cora call this plant houatari. The Nahuatl word peyotl which is the word peyote is derived from roughly translates as “silk cocoon” or “caterpillar’s silk” referring to the white wooly strands found on the top of the plant.

Among the Huicholes, Cora, and Tarahumara, the plant is sacred. Yearly pilgrimages are taken by the Huicholes by devotees to the desert area in San Luis Potosi where the peyote grows.  

Peyote has been used medicinally for thousands of years in Mexico, possibly as far back as 5,700 years ago. Peyote remnants have been found in a burial cave that dates back to 810 to 1070 CE in Coahuila, Mexico

Peyote was used prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Bernardino de Sahagún described the hallucinogenic effects of peyote in his work Historia general de las cosas de la Nueva España in 1558. He wrote “There is a plant that recalls the truffle; it is called peyotl, it is white in color and is produced in the northernmost regions of the country. Those who eat it see surprising and laughing things. This drunkenness lasts two or three days, and then it goes away. This plant is commonly consumed by the Chichimeca; It supports them and gives them courage for combat, sheltering them from fear, thirst, and hunger. The use of this drug was in the hands of the fortune-tellers and witches, and especially of the wearers of charms.“

As its use was tied so closely to religion, the Catholic priests sent to convert the native Mexicans were determined to stop its use completely lest the souls of the new Christians be contaminated. The Spanish Inquisition prohibited peyote use in Mexico in 1620. A confessional from 1760 contains the questions “Have you killed anyone? How many have you killed? Have you eaten the flesh of man? Have you eaten peyote?” implying that murder, cannibalism, and peyote use were on the same grievous sin level. 

Traditionally, peyote is also used in rural areas of Mexico to treat fever and as a general cleansing of both body and soul. Thin slices of the cactus are soaked in water, but not boiled, which is then drunk by the person with a fever. Sunstroke is also treated with sliced pieces soaked in water. However, in this case, the water and slices are placed in a glass and then poured over the person’s head. 

There’s more to this little cactus then hallucinations. Peyocactin is an antibiotic derived from the peyote cactus effective against 18 different penicillin-resistant bacteria. Extracts from the Lophophora williamsii have also been shown to stimulate the immune system. Hopefully, further research will be done on this medicinal plant in the future.

Note: Although peyote is not illegal in Canada nor in Mexico, it is limited in use in the United States to religious ceremonies. In the U.S. it is considered a controlled substance. Lophophora williamsii is an endangered species and should not be harvested in the wild. 

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The Girl who Inspired a Revolution

In honor of International Women’s Day, and in light of Yalitza Aparicio Martínez’s moment in the sun at the Oscars, I’d like to talk about an illegitimate, indigenous girl from Cabora who inspired a revolution and became a saint.hummingbirds daughter

Teresita Urrea was born on October 15, 1873. Her birth name was Niña García Noña María Rebecca Chávez. Her father, Tomás Urrea, was the hacienda owner of Rancho de Santana, Ocoroni in Sinaloa, Mexico and her mother, Cayetana Chávez, was a 14-year old Tehueco servant on the ranch.

In 1880, Urrea moved his ranch to Cabora, Sonora because of some issues he had with Porfirio Diaz. After arriving in Cabora, Teresita had some sort of fit and lapsed in and out of cataleptic states for several months.

She began to do healings as a curandera shortly after she recovered, mostly ministering to the poor, downtrodden indigenous people of the area. People came to her for healings which she performed in the name of the Virgin de Guadalupe.

The Mayo and Yaqui referred to her as La Santa de Cabora which angered the Catholic church officials. The press got wind of all this and started to include regular articles about Teresita in the Mexico City newspaper El Monitor Republicano.  Her legend became intertwined with the events that led up to the Mexican Revolution of 1910 beginning around this time.

Drought prompted the Tarahumara village of Tomochic, Chihuahua to ask for her intervention with the powers that be. While she was there, the village inhabitants had a violent confrontation with federal officials after the auspicious battle cry ‘Viva la Santa de Cabora!” or so the story goes.

Teresita and her father were exiled from Mexico by Porfirio Diaz in May 1892 as the cause of the indigenous insurrections. They were escorted to the border by the Eleventh Regiment and Twelfth Battalion of the Mexican army led by General Abraham Bandala.

After she was exiled, Teresita’s name and sainthood continued to be the rallying call for the Tomochitecos. Federal troops finally destroyed the village and killed at least 300 villagers. The Mayo also united under her banner and attacked Navajoa, Sonora after their lands had been seized by the government.

Meanwhile, Teresita and her father settled in El Bosque near Nogales, Arizona. Teresita began practicing her healing arts again.

In 1895, she was living in Solomonville, Arizona where Lauro Aguirre and Flores Chapa were publishing an anti-government newspaper called El Independiente. In 1896, the two journalists published a pamphlet which referred to the Tomochic rebellion and called for the overthrow of the Mexican government. Flores and Chapa were arrested and tried by the United States government. During the trial, Teresita was named as an accomplice in the drafting of the pamphlet calling for equal rights for all. After the men were acquitted, Teresita moved to El Paso, Texas where again Aguirre was publishing newspapers. She was featured in newspapers in El Paso as “an apolitical spiritual healer.”

In 1896, a group of 60-70 Yaquis and Tomochis attacked the customs house in Nogales, Arizona under the protection of La Santa de Cabora calling themselves “Teresitas”. It was rumored that some carried a picture of Teresita over their hearts as protection.

The Mexican government demanded Teresita extradited back to Mexico, still blaming her for the uprisings. Teresa made a public statement in the El Paso Herald on September 11, 1896, denying she had anything to do with the attack in Nogales.

The Mexican government made at least 3 attempts on her life. Teresita married, Guadalupe Rodriguez, a Yaqui miner, in 1900. Guadalupe tried to kidnap her to return her to Mexico the morning after their marriage. He was arrested, declared insane, and sent to live in an asylum. They were divorced in 1904.

Teresita went on the road with her healing. She signed a contract with either a San Francisco publisher or pharmaceutical firm, sources are unclear which. She performed in public in several large cities, including St. Louis and New York. A conflict over charges the tour promoters had been exacting from those who came to see her ended her contract.

She had a daughter in 1902.  In 1904 she had a second child. Not much is known about the father of these children. She died of tuberculosis on January 11, 1906, and was buried in Clifton, Arizona where her father is also buried.

Whether or not Teresita actively incited the indigenous to revolt against the oppressive regime of Porfirio Diaz, the idea she embodied was an inspiration to thousands. Just four years after her death, Mexico entered a long and bloody civil war.queen

If you are interested in reading more about Teresita’s life, you can read Teresita by William Curry Holden, La insólita historia de la Santa de Cabora by Brianda Domecq, The Astonishing Story of the Saint of Cabora, The Hummingbird’s Daughter and Queen of America written by Teresita’s relative Luis Alberto Urrea.

You can also read my review of The Hummingbird’s Daughter here.

 

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12 days of Guadalupe on Instagram

Jill Douglas set our little SOTB Bloggers group a challenge this month, to find and share 12 images of the Virgen de Guadalupe on Instagram.

You might wonder why I participated since I’m not Catholic, nor Mexican, and the iconic image doesn’t inspire a spiritual connection to either the Virgin Mary or Tonantzin in me. However, I can appreciate good artwork when I see it, whatever its theme. After all, historically, artists made their bread and butter from murals, statues, and paintings commissioned by the church. For example, Da Vinci created the religious masterpiece The Last Supper and was not what was considered an orthodox Christian and Michelangelo who painted the glorious Sistine Chapel was condemned by the Pope for his religious beliefs.  

Be that as it may, I accepted the challenge and set off in search of La Virgen. The nearest town, Moroleon has whitewashed nearly all religious drawings with the exception of the churches themselves. As I wanted to capture a people’s version of La Virgen, I wasn’t interested in tromping into churches to snap pictures there. So my husband took me to Uriangato, which as you know has a different feel altogether. (Uriangato, Fogatas, tapetes and San Miguel Arcangel) Sure enough, nearly every corner had a shrine in honor of La Virgen de Guadalupe and I could take my pick.

It was evident that each mural was lovingly maintained. Flowers and plants were well-kept. The image was often covered by a roof or had evidence of periodic touching up. And the artwork was good, very good. Some murals only depicted her Majesty, Nuestra Señora la Reina de Mexico, herself. Others included Juan Diego, who was the first to speak with the apparition way back in 1531.  Still others included a crucified Jesus or a prayer asking for the Protectress’s blessing.

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Here is a composite of the 12 pictures I shared on Instagram leading up to today, el Día de la Virgen de Guadalupe, which the feast day that kicks off the holiday season known as Guadalupe-Reyes Maraton here in Mexico.

If you enjoyed these pictures, check out the #12daysofguadalupe participants below:

My Life Craft-n-Dab

Jill Michelle Douglas

Surviving Mexico

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Would you like to learn more about La Virgen de Guadalupe?

Check out my comprehensive guidebook to Mexican Holidays available now on Amazon!

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